Though the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa Shogunate(feudal government) turned its power over to the emperor in 1867, and in 1868 a new government was formed around the Emperor Meiji, Edo the castle town of the feudal government, was designated as the headquarters of the new government and its name was changed to Tokyo, which literally means "eastern capital."
Q. What is the parliamentary system of Japan like?
The parliament of Japan is called the Diet, and is made up of the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors
The Constitution of Japan has a preface and 11 chapters containing a total of 103 articles. Three basic concepts that characterize the Constitution are (1) sovereignty of the people, (2) respect for fundamental human rights, and (3) opposition to war.
As suggested by the general headquarters of the allied forces occupying Japan after World War II, the Japanese government completed a draft of the revision of the Meiji Constitution in January 1946.
The Edo period is the 260-year span following Tokugawa Ieyasu's defeat of the Toyotomi Family and the establishment of a bakufu government in Edo (now Tokyo) in 1603.
This period also saw the reinforcement of a status system known as shi-no-ko-sho (warrior - peasant - artisan - merchant), which placed the warrior in the top social class, and externally, the establishment of a policy ofnational seclusionand the prohibition of Christianity.
As the Bakufu lost power, the country entered the Warring States period of fighting and disorder. The Warring States period lasted 100 years.
Culturally, with the arrival of Francisco Xavier in 1549,Christianitywas brought to Japan.
Kamakura period was the beginning of warrior clan politics. Bakufu was the name for a military regime in which the head of the warriors, theshogun, controlled political affairs. The emperor was simply a figurehead.
One of the more unforgettable incidents of the Kamakura period was of the Mongolian invasions. In the years 1274 and 1284, the forces of Kublai Khan attempted to invade Kyushu at Hakata, but both times the Mongolian troops were defeated with the help of large storms at sea, calledKamikaze.
At the end of the eighth century, the capital was moved to present-day Kyoto. The Heian period designates a span of roughly 400 years until the 12th century.
Aristocratsunder the emperor held actual power and controlled the government.
In the cultural sphere, Japan was able to move away from its reliance on imitating and assimilating Tan culture and proceed to forge a culture hat incorporated a distinct Japanese sprit and sensitivity. Due to the development and spread of hiragana and katakana, world-renowned literary works such as the Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu and Makura no Soshi by Seishonagon were created during this period.
The Nara period spans most of the eight century, from 710 to 794, making the years when the present-day city of Nara was the seat of the capital. This capital was called Heijokyo.
Buddhism flourished in the middle of the sixth century in Japan under the protection of the state. It was during this period that the world's largest existing bronze sculpture of Buddha - the Great Buddha of Todaiji temple - was built.
Recorded imperial chronologies note ten women emperors. However, under the current Imperial Household Law only males in the imperial family are allowed to succeed to the throne.
Of course, it is impossible to know with historical accuracy, but if we begin with Emperor Jimmu chronicled in the Nihon Dhoki and Kojiki, the current emperor would be the 125th reigning monarch.
According to the ancient historical chronicles, the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki, Japan's first emperor was supposedly Emperor Jimmu, who lived around 660 B.C.
However, this has not been proved to be true. It is widely held that the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki are based on legend, as both ere compiled after the eight century.
There are said to be some 50,000 kanji, most of which have been adopted into Japanese. However, many kanji are not necessary used in daily life, and today, 1,945 characters have been designated as joyo kanji, or kanji in common use.
The current design - a red disc in the center of a white field - was originally adopted by the Tokugawa government in 1854 to be used on flags for Japan's ships. This is done in order to distinguish Japanese ships from foreign ships, and was not necessarily intended to stand as Japan's national fag.
Both names are commonly used. Since postage stamps are marked Nipppon and Japanese athletes sent overseas often wear uniforms emblazoned Nippon, it ban be said that Nippon is regarded as the official name for Japan.
In Japan, February 11th is National Foundation Day. This date is based on legends chronicled in the ancient Kojiki and N Nihon shoki texts, but from an academic perspective , there is doubt over the historical accuracy.
The majority of Japanese would say that the best seasons are spring and autumn, especially early May when trees are covered in fresh green and between October and mid-November when the leaves change colors.
The climate of most of Japan is characterized by four distinct seasons. Summer months, with high temperature and highhumidity, may be uncomfortable for those who are used to a dry continental climate.
In the beginning of summer, all areas except Hokkaido have arainy season, which usually lasts from early June to mid-July.
From the end of summer of the beginning of autumn, typhoons generated in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean hit the country, sometimes causing extensive damage.
Japan's longest river is the Shinao River, which starts in the eastern part of Nagano prefecture, runs through central Niigata, and flows into the Sea of Japan in Niigata city.
The Shinano, 367 km from source to mouth, may not be considered long when compared with famous rivers of the world such as the Mississippi, the Danube and Rhine, but is relatively long for the size of the country.
The first recorded eruption of Mt. Fuji was in 781, and it is said to have erupted 13 times, roughly once every 38 years, till 1083.
An interval of 428 years elapsed before the 14th eruption, and only three eruptions were recorded between 1511 and 1707. Since then, no volcanic activity has been observed, which indicates that Mr. Fuji is in a dormant state. however, their still is the possibility of an eruption, no matter how slim.
Japan's land area is approximately 378,00km2. It is often said that Japan is a small country. However, 60% of countries in the world are smaller than Japan.